Physical and Psychological Effects of War and Conflict

Members of the People's Defence Forces (PDF) who became guerrilla fighters after being protesters are seen on the front line in Kawkareik, Myanmar December 31, 2021. Picture taken December 31, 2021. REUTERS/Stringer

No One wants a war. In the war, everyone can become a victim. Nobody wants to face it. Nevertheless, the adverse effects of war are explained, here. Let’s read it. In the end, you will notice the long journey of effects of war and conflicts.

“In war, Not everyone is a soldier.”

What are the Physical effects?

  1. You can get injury during war. Not only gun shots and bomb blast injuries, but also fall from a height while running or seeking a place to hide may lead to injure your body. You might get such a harmful injury and even die.
  2. Your life is in danger if you get wounded at your head, neck, heart or chest/ lungs and main blood vessels, etc. Your brain is dead if you are shot to the head, and you cannot breathe because the breathing center of brain is damaged. Most of the cause of death due to bullet injury is hypovolemic (hypo means lower, -volemic means the amount of circulating blood) because of bleeding a lot.

What will happen if you are shot to the chest?

A small hole in your chest can lead to die, if you did not notice and treat it.

What are the consequences of chest wound?

  1. When the lungs is torn or bleed, you can suffer Hemothorax (Hemo means blood, thorax means lung). The lung is filled with blood when injury to the vessel by bullet or bomb blast pieces.
  2. Now you are breathlessness (difficulty in breathing and you breathe faster and faster to get enough oxygen).

Why do you become breathlessness?

  • The working areas of damage lung is decreased due to the pressure of the blood or trapped air.
  • Let’s consider about how do this occur.
  • Let imagine lung as an oxygen exchange factory. The production is lower and lower due to the factory error.
  • Let imagine brain as an oxygen consumer. It will alarm the factory to produce enough oxygen so that the lung make breathing faster to supply. And breathing rate will higher.
  • Let imagine heart as transport company. (The heart pumps the blood which carries oxygen to the brain) Then, the brain warned the heart to carry oxygenated blood faster. And it leads the heart beats become quicker.
  • But the factory collapse and cannot maintain the output, and try to make more production worst the damage. The more you breathe in, the more you feel breathlessness.
  • Should never be missed it! It should be treated as soon as possible.
  • You can suffer from burns due to explosive weapon.
  • Your skin will be burnt due to heat or hot objects.
  • You can suffer from broken bones or injuries if you fall on the ground or fall from building, etc.
  • Or you can lose your part of the limbs. (Amputation)
  • Or you can be a disable or handicapped person.

Those are possible physical injuries. Moreover, the treatments of such injuries will never be enough. Insufficient materials (medicine) and man power (health care personals) are threats to give good treatments for them. During war, the domestic health problems such as general illness, pneumonia, malaria, malnourishment, abdominal pain and so on will be definitely challenging for their health.

These are only few parts of War’s effect. Let’s continue reading.

Shelter, Water and Toilet

The shelter is almost always not safe. It would not enough for the bad weather conditions, such as cold and rain. Additionally, there will be threats of wild animals such as snake or other insects. Lack of sufficient Toilet and clean water. Besides, poor hygiene and sanitation may cause a diarrhea (loose motion)

Starvation …

During war, the starvation is one of the huge issues that refugees will need to solve. Not enough food to feed them. The children are always hungry. The medical problems owing to malnourishment such as vitamin deficiency, will be one of the difficulties of war.

Psychological Impact of Victims of War and Conflict

The physical impact is worse. Nevertheless, the psychological injuries are also not good. The victims of war suffer a lot of mental traumas, e.g., Fear, Insecure, post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD), mental problems of being handicapped (due to physical injury), loss of properties or jobs or relatives and so on.

Would you mind if you are asked some questions?

  • Have you ever seen a mental patient?
  • If yes, please think what causes make he or she has a mental problem?
  • What will you do if you meet him or her?


In a war and conflict times, the victims are always thread to injuries and lives. Horror to live such as force to participate in war and risk of being raped against their will. They will be stressed for thinking of loss of their relatives by the terror of war.

The victims will surely face the sleepless nights (sleep disturbance) or nightmares due to insecure. They worry what will happen tomorrow, what to eat, where to sleep, and how about for medicine. Lack of sleep may cause the victims feel weak, reduce immunity (ability of the body to fight against disease), later you can get heart problem. You can read more about the effects of lack of sleep at Raungni website of app.

Depression and Anxiety …

No one is happy in war time. Loss of job and not enough income for essential things to live. The victims had to leave their belongings if they abandon their home. Hopeless days and nights may worse the depression.

When the victims feel depress, their desires to eat or sleep are falling dawn. They will think that they do not want to live anymore and their suicidal tendency are high, especially in elderly victims.

When you feel depressed, there are many ways to relief your stress such as chat with your friends, read books or meditation.

Even though during war and conflicts, these activities can be done without much difficulties. Stay strong and never loss your hope.

There is always a sunny day with breezes after the storm. There is a dawn after the darkness night.

Never surrender, never lose.

Post-traumatic stress syndrome

This is the later effects of war which the victims will suffer because of the horror experience of war.

The victims cannot forget about the memories of difficult times for some extents. They will continue suffering lacks of sleep, worries, depression and anxiety.

If they were the handicapped person due to war related injuries, they feel more anxiety. They think that they cannot return to normal lives as before war. They, however, think that they have to find new job for their livings. Furthermore, the cost of treatment will burden them, too.

They can still be afraid even when they hear the words “War”. Afraid of loud noise because they think that it is explosion of bomb. When they are alone, the negative thoughts which they experienced in war will depress them, again.

Conclusion …

Please answer, which war is good? No and it is always.

Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus (Roman General) said the words “if you want peace, prepare forwar”, is the original Latin of the expression that comes a book named Epitoma Rei Militaris at that time of roman empire led by the King: Theodosius (379 to 395 century).

Ending the war and Justice must win for a better life will be the best answer and that is all my wishes.

Thank you for reading. Stay strong.Any comment is appreciated.One day, surely the day will be arrived where the peace is promised and the sorrow is gone.

Author – Linkar Dipa


  1. ​အမှန်တရားအောင်ပွဲနဲ့အမြန်းဆုံးငြိမ်းချမ်းပါစေ

  2. […] In car crash, the patient can suffer from broken bones, head injury, neck injury, muscle injury or wounds, etc. If the patient is stabbed by knife or hit by bullet to his chest or abdomen, it may get lung problem such as Hemothorax (the chest filled with blood), pneumothorax (the chest is filled with unnecessary air and his lung is pressed) or his main blood vessels or abdominal organs may be severely injured. (You can read more about Hemothorax and pneumothorax at the article of “the physical and psychological effects of war“) […]

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